Tag Archives: L-Glutamine Powder by Designs for Health

Glutamine and the Gut

Glutamine and the GutJacquie Eubanks RN BSN

Glutamine, the most abundant and versatile free amino acid in the body, also appears to be the most active amino acid due to its involvement in numerous metabolic functions. It plays a vital role in protein and glutathione synthesis, energy production, immune function and the maintenance of optimal antioxidant status. Essential for maintaining intestinal function and mucosal integrity, as well as the repair and maintenance of gut barrier function, glutamine is a precursor for the synthesis of proteins, ribonucleotides and vitamins and also serves as a major energy source for cell division by providing nitrogen when glucose is low. As well, glutamine aids in the maintenance of normal blood glucose and proper acid/base balance.

As a main fuel source for a large number of cells, amino acid availability is fundamental to cell survival, maintenance and proliferation. The majority of glutamine is synthesized and stored in the muscles and lungs, and is released into circulation by key metabolic organs, including the gut, liver and skeletal muscles. Glutamine is so essential to immune function that the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells, which often function under nutrient restricted microenvironments, is comparable to or greater than that of glucose. The body’s biochemical and metabolic pathways control pathogen infections by increasing amino acid catabolism, aiding immune response and helping to control inflammatory responses to infections.

Recent studies have highlighted the critical role of glutamine in the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity. It is estimated that during a normal lifetime, 60 tons of food passes through the gastrointestinal tract, posing a continuous threat to the integrity of the multifunctional, rapidly proliferating epithelial cells that line mucosal walls. A healthy functioning gut barrier is essential for the absorption of nutrients and the rejection of pathogens, toxins and allergens. Mucosal barrier dysfunction is associated with increased gut permeability and the development of multiple gastrointestinal and autoimmune diseases. Glutamine is reported to enhance intestinal absorptive cell proliferation and regulate intestinal barrier function during injury, infection and other conditions.

Growing evidence supports the theory that glutamine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for newborns and a conditionally essential amino acid for adults. As a functional amino acid with multiple physiological roles, glutamine may protect the gut from atrophy and injury from a diverse number of stress-related conditions characterized by chronic inflammation, such as stomach ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. It’s theorized that chronic stress can lead to a poorly functioning immune system and change the balance of the gut microbiota, allowing ulcer-inducing H. pylori and other harmful bacteria to thrive.

Traditionally termed a nonessential amino acid, glutamine is normally synthesized by the body in adequate amounts. However, given the importance of glutamine in maintaining normal cellular functions, glutamine is considered a conditionally essential amino acid when the body’s consumption of glutamine exceeds the rate of production. This may occur during times of increased demand, particularly post-surgery or traumatic injury, during critical illness or metabolic stress, a physiological process that occurs during exercise in response to athletic exhaustion. In addition to synthesis, glutamine is a naturally occurring amino acid obtained from dietary sources, including animal proteins, such as chicken, seafood and dairy, and plant- based proteins, including beans, leafy greens, tofu, beets and lentils. As glutamine stores are depleted during illness and metabolic stress and the intestines utilize about 30 percent of total glutamine, supplementation when indicated may improve clinical outcomes for intestinal, immune and overall health.

Professional Supplement Center offers these and other high quality supplements in support of immune, intestinal and overall health:

L-Glutamine 1,000 mgL-Glutamine 1,000 mg by Pure Encapsulations®: This hypoallergenic formulation provides nutritional support for enhanced mucosal lining health, intestinal integrity and a healthy functioning gastrointestinal tract, as well as lean muscle mass growth and maintenance. Gluten free, Non-GMO vegan formulation.

L-Glutamine PowderL-Glutamine Powder by Designs for Health®: This professional powdered formulation provides 3 g of L-glutamine per serving for immune and digestive support, as well as maintenance and growth of lean muscle mass. Gluten free, Non-GMO formulation.

Glutamine ForteGlutamine Forte by Integrative Therapeutics®: Each serving of this naturally flavored powdered formula provides 5 g of L-glutamine blended with 100 mg of bioavailable turmeric, supporting enhanced immune function and the restoration and maintenance of healthy gut barrier function and permeability. Free of sugar, salt, yeast, wheat, gluten, soy, dairy and artificial coloring, flavoring and preservatives. Vegetarian formulation.

L-Glutamine CapsulesL-Glutamine 500 mg by Designs for Health®: Each capsule provides 850 mg of L-glutamine, supporting  immune and digestive tract health, as well as optimal muscle growth and maintenance. Gluten and soy free, Non-GMO vegetarian formulation.


Glutamine: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/glutamine
Glutamine: Metabolism and Immune Function, Supplementation and Clinical Translation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266414/
Glutamine and intestinal barrier function. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24965526
Role of glutamine in Protection of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junctions. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4369670/
Glutamine supplements show promise in treating stomach ulcers. https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2009/05/glutamine-supplements-show-promise-in-treating-stomach-ulcers/

To Maintain Health, Protect the Gut Barrier

Protect your GutJacquie Eubanks RN BSN

It’s hard to believe that the intestinal epithelium, the largest and most important barrier between our internal and external environments, consists of a single layer of cells connected by cell-to-cell junctions that seal the intercellular space. This highly regulated and selectively permeable barrier permits the absorption of essential nutrients, electrolytes and water, and effectively defends against toxins, foreign antigens and microorganisms. As well, it maintains tissue integrity, and receives and transmits signals that affect cell behavior. Constantly challenged by the gut microbiome, the gut barrier is crucial to maintaining tissue homeostasis. For a variety of reasons, this physical barrier can become compromised. Intestinal permeability, wherein the naturally tight cellular junctions don’t function properly, allows substances not normally released to cross over into the blood stream.

Like other health syndromes, the debate continues as to whether this gastrointestinal disorder, sometimes referred to as ‘leaky gut’, is responsible for poor health. Increasingly, the association between disrupted barrier function and the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has been recognized by the alternative and natural health community. The medical community at large insists there is not enough research to support the theory that leaky gut wreaks havoc within the body, which may result in a range of symptoms from fatigue, joint pain, skin problems, sleep disorders, irritability, food sensitivities and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Yet, other practitioners who diagnose leaky gut syndrome claim that a lack of adequate studies does not mean it does not exist.

Per the National Institutes of Health (NIH), intestinal permeability is regulated by multiple factors including exogenous factors, such as pathogens, epithelial apoptosis (programmed cell death), immune cytokines and immune cells. Immune-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction is thought to be critical in the predisposition and exacerbation of many autoimmune and inflammatory conditions including IBD, food allergy, celiac disease and diabetes. As well, chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to be associated with increased intestinal permeability, as well as inhibition of vitamin and nutrient transport and a reduction in sodium and water absorption. While not fully understood, evidence suggests the mechanism underlying alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction is related to the influx of inflammatory cells, as well as the release of various mediators, including cytokines, reactive oxygen species, leukotrienes and histamine.

Psychological and physical stress can induce a number of changes in normal gastrointestinal function that affect gut motility, permeability, mucous secretion and absorption, resulting in stress induced changes in intestinal barrier function. Long-term chronic stress is associated with an increased risk or worsening of ulcerative colitis and the exacerbation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), as well as functional gastrointestinal disorders. Increased permeability induced by stress is believed to play an important role in disease progression and relapse.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with a high incidence of gastrointestinal side effects. Substantial evidence indicates that chronic use can alter intestinal barrier function, causing significant damage including ulcers, perforation, hemorrhage and exacerbation of IBD. It has become evident that acute and chronic ingestion of NSAIDs by healthy persons promotes altered intestinal barrier dysfunction.

In summation, dysregulation of the intestinal barrier has been associated with chronic immune and inflammatory diseases. High blood sugar, common in those with diabetes, obesity and other metabolic syndromes, disrupts the intestinal barrier leading to intestinal inflammation and systemic infection complications. Food allergies, pathogens, toxins, and bacteria, such as E. coli that causes food poisoning, can all alter intestinal barrier function. Whether the role of intestinal epithelial barrier function remains a factor in the predisposition for disease development, or disease results in barrier dysfunction, remains elusive. However, clinical and experimental evidence supports the role of intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in disease pathogenesis.

It’s clear that a vital indicator of gut health is the degree of intestinal permeability. Intestinal health is paramount for achieving and maintaining overall health and wellness, as nearly 80 percent of the immune system is housed in the gut. Immune health impacts inflammatory markers, a root indicator of chronic disease. The intestinal wall villi could be considered ground zero for inflammation and oxidative stress. Maintaining the epithelial barrier is crucial for decreasing permeability and reducing risks of associated health conditions.

Well studied L-glutamine is a unique amino acid that provides an energy source for immune cells, as well as nutrition for villi health. Clinical studies have found that L-glutamine may reduce intestinal mucosal permeability, contribute to intestinal barrier maintenance and modulate immune cells, enhancing intestinal immune function. L-glutamine is thought to improve mucosal repair and address restoration of barrier function, helping to maintain the integrity of the gut and addressing a foundational cause of many health conditions.

Professional Supplement Center offers these and other high quality products in support of a  healthy intestinal barrier:

L-Glutamine PowderL-Glutamine Powder by Designs for Health®: This powdered supplement provides 3 g of L-glutamine per serving in support of the immune and digestive tract health. L-glutamine supports the healthy function  of intestinal mucosal cells for normal healing and repair. Gluten free, Non-GMO formulation.

Comprehensive Gut...Comprehensive Gut Health by Pioneer®: This professional product is formulated to provide nutritive support for gastrointestinal health. Specific ingredients support and soothe the intestinal lining and mucous membranes to protect the gut barrier. Verified gluten free. No artificial colors, flavors or preservatives.

L-Glutamine 1,000 mgL-Glutamine 1,000 mg by Pure Encapsulations®: This hypoallergenic formulation provides 1,000 mg of free-form G-glutamine per serving in support of the mucosal lining and a healthy functioning gastrointestinal tract. Gluten free, Non-GMO vegan formulation.

Restore Gut Health...Restore Gut Health Mineral Supplement by Restore®: This premier liquid formulation is designed for complete wellbeing of the immune system and intestinal tract. Specific ingredients help to balance gut health by combatting environmental exposures and creating a healthy microbiome for good bacteria to grow and flourish. Naturally gluten free, BPA free, non-toxic formulation.

Leaky Gut WellnessLeaky Gut Wellness by Bio Nutrition: Leaky Gut Wellness is formulated to provide bowel, gastrointestinal and digestive stress support. Specific ingredients support the maintenance of a healthy mucosal barrier and aid nutrient absorption for overall wellness. Free of gluten, yeast, corn, sugar, starch, salt, milk, preservatives and artificial ingredients.

Stress SuppressStress Suppress by Diamond Formulations: Stress Suppress provides specific ingredients known to support healthy levels of calming neurotransmitters that enhance the body’s ability to cope with stress, elevate mood and support relaxation. Stress Suppress aids the body in returning to homeostasis by encouraging balanced stress and inflammatory responses, providing nutrients to improve symptoms of stress and supporting a general sense of wellbeing. Free of wheat, yeast, soy, gluten, animal or dairy products, fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, and artificial colors, artificial sweeteners and artificial preservatives. Non-GMO kosher formulation.

Intestinal Barrier Function: Molecular Regulation and Disease Pathogenesis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266989/
Apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium: its relevance in normal and pathophysiological conditions. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10735533
Intestinal barriers protect against disease. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6380/1097